de Lamballerie X, Ninove L, Charrel RN. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2009 March;9(2):101-4.
Chikungunya (CHIK) fever is a tropical arboviral disease responsible for acute polyarthritis which can last for weeks to months. Since 2004, several million cases of chikungunya virus disease have occurred in autochthonous populations and in travelers who were diagnosed after they returned home from epidemic areas. In 2007, the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) reached Europe. No antiviral treatment is currently available. Chloroquine has been used in the past but recent studies suggest that it is not or poorly active in vivo. A number of tracks are currently under investigation and new animal models have been made available, including a mouse model and a non-human primate model.
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ECDC comment (2009-05-19): CHIKV has be shown to be able to spread throughout the world and all physicians, particularly those in the field of Infectious diseases and travel medicine should be prepared to encounter this arboviral infection that represent a paradigm for emerging arboviral infections. Patients infected with CHIKV remain symptomatic after weeks and present with chronic peripheral rheumatism, characterized by severe joint pain and multiple tenosynovitis, with a dramatically limited ability to ambulate and carry out activities in daily life Follow-up of infected patients has demonstrated slow improvement in joint pain and stiffness despite symptomatic treatment, mainly antiinflammatory and analgesic drugs. The authors review here the main perspectives of chikungunya antiviral treatment.