How to use this database


Table structure

Study characteristics table: This table has details of each study, including geographic coverage, last year of recruitment, number sampled, response rate, age, type of specimens collected and diagnostic test used, number tested and number positive, point prevalence and 95% CI, risk of bias. Further information on each variable can be found in the Glossary.

Prevalence estimates table: This table displays only the point prevalence reported by the different studies by country year of publication.

Data sources table: Here links are provided for each study.

How to use filters in the tables

To view only studies from for example a certain country or year users can filter the display by clicking on the desired option in the menu above the table. To select multiple options press Ctrl and then click on the additional selection. To discard the filters, click on the Filtering icon at the top right of each filtering option menu.

Menus with filtering options are only given for the most important variables, but users can filter on characteristics in any characteristic by going straight to the output tables and clicking on the downward arrow in the cell at the top of each column and select 'Filter...'.

How to view the table a larger format

To expand the view of the table and filtering options, click the Maximize icon at the bottom right corner of the table.

How to download the tables

Click on the Download icon at the right end of the table. If filter options are selected only the selection will be included in the downloaded file. If tables are downloaded users can filter on characteristics in any of the columns.


Inclusion of particular studies in this website does not necessarily represent endorsement by the ECDC. Reports were reviewed for quality, but not all data presented here are of equal quality. Users are encouraged to use the links provided to the original publications when interpreting the results.

An ad hoc risk of bias framework as developed by the original ECDC review team as described in the published systematic review. This framework assessed different domains across populations. See further information under ‘Risk of Bias’ in the Glossary or review of the method in the published systematic review .

There could be a long time lag between data collection and publication.

The web service used for storage of the source file is Microsoft OneDrive. Microsoft OneDrive uses cookies. You can find further information about the cookie purpose, the type of data collected, and instructions on how to disable cookies in Microsoft’s cookies and privacy policy . Please note that for this service ECDC has already automatically disabled the use of cookies for “Interest-Based Advertising”.

Users can control and/or delete cookies, delete all cookies that are already on their computers and set most browsers to prevent them from being placed. None of these actions affect the functionalities of this tool.