The arrival, establishment and spread of exotic diseases: patterns and predictions
Largely based on the experience gained with the other partners of the EDEN project, Emerging Diseases in a changing European Environment, Sarah Randolph and David Rogers review the factors underpinning the arrival, establishment and spread of exotic diseases.
Putative new lineage of West Nile virus in Spain
To ascertain the presence of West Nile virus (WNV), we sampled mosquitoes in 2006 in locations in southern Spain where humans had been infected. WNV genomic RNA was detected in 1 pool from unfed female Culex pipiens mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this sequence cannot be assigned to previously described lineages of WNV.
Surveillance of Arboviruses in Spanish Wetlands: Detection of New Flavi- and Phleboviruses
The paper presents the results of a study carried out from 2001 to 2004 in Spain, during which 4,300 insects (mosquitoes and sandflies) pools were analyzed by PCR.
Sequencing of Culex quinquefasciatus establishes a platform for mosquito comparative genomics
Nile virus transmission during the last months (link to West Nile virus transmission in Europe epidemiological update).
West Nile virus in Europe: understanding the present to gauge the future
The appearance of West Nile virus in New York in 1999 and the unprecedented panzootic that followed, have stimulated a major research effort in the western hemisphere and a new interest in the presence of this virus in the Old World. This review considers current understanding of the natural history of this pathogen, with particular regard to transmission in Europe.
Mosquitoes in Malta: Preliminary entomological investigation and risk assessment for vector-borne diseases (Diptera: Culicidae)
At the request of Malta’s Infectious Disease Prevention and Control Unit (IDCU), the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) organized an expert mission in Malta in 2009 to provide support for a vector-borne disease (VBD) risk assessment.
Evidence of simultaneous circulation of West Nile and Usutu viruses in mosquitoes sampled in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) in 2009
In recent years human diseases due to mosquito-borne viruses were increasingly reported in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy), from the chikungunya virus in 2007 to the West Nile virus (WNV) in 2008. An extensive entomological survey was performed in 2009 to establish the presence and distribution of mosquito arboviruses in this region, with particular reference to flaviviruses.