ECDC/EFSA/EMA first joint report on the integrated analysis of the consumption of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from humans and food-producing animals
Joint Interagency Antimicrobial Consumption and Resistance Analysis (JIACRA) ReportThe ECDC, the EFSA and the EMA have for the first time jointly explored associations between consumption of antimicrobials in humans and food-producing animals, and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from humans and food-producing animals, using 2011 and 2012 data currently available from their relevant five EU monitoring networks.
A summary indicator of the proportion of resistant bacteria in the main food-producing animal species was calculated for the analysis, as consumption data in food-producing animals were not available at the species level. Comparison of antimicrobial consumption data in animals and humans in 2012, both expressed in milligrams per kilogram of estimated biomass, revealed that overall antimicrobial consumption was higher in animals than in humans, although contrasting situations were observed between countries.
The consumption of several antimicrobials extensively used in animal husbandry was higher in animals than in humans, while consumption of antimicrobials critically important for human medicine (such as fluoroquinolones and 3rd-and 4th-generation cephalosporins) was higher in humans. In both humans and animals, positive associations between consumption of antimicrobials and the corresponding resistance in bacteria were observed for most of the combinations investigated. In some cases, a positive association was also found between antimicrobial consumption in animals and resistance in bacteria from humans. While highlighting findings of concern, these results should be interpreted with caution owing to current data limitations and the complexity of the AMR phenomenon, which is influenced by several factors besides antimicrobial consumption. Recommendations to address current data limitations for analyses of this type were identified. In any case, responsible use of antimicrobials in both humans and animals should be promoted.
Gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance in Europe, 2016
30 Aug 2018 - The surveillance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) has been co-ordinated by ECDC since 2009. This surveillance is essential for detecting emerging and increasing antimicrobial resistance and making quality-assured data available to inform treatment guidelines.
Antimicrobial resistance (EARS-Net) - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2014
3 Jul 2018 - Over the last four years (2011 to 2014), the percentages of Klebsiella pneumonia e resistant to fluoroquinolones, third-generation cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, as well as combined resistance to all three antimicrobial groups, has increased significantly at the EU/EEA level.