Rapid risk assessment: Hepatitis A outbreaks in the EU/EEA mostly affecting men who have sex with men, 20 December 2016
This rapid risk assessment looks at the ongoing transmission of hepatitis A virus infection mainly affecting men who have sex with men in EU/EEA countries.
From February 2016 to December 2016, five EU countries reported clusters or sporadic cases associated with two different hepatitis A virus sequences. Three other countries, Spain, Italy and Germany, reported regional increases of hepatitis A in men who have sex with men (MSM) or adult male populations.
The two sequences are most likely associated with independent events and mostly associated with MSM population groups at increased risk for hepatitis A virus infection. No infected food handlers have been implicated in these events. Person-to-person sexual transmission is the most likely hypothesis for the spread of this outbreak, as a foodborne transmission would tend to result in more cases affecting the general population.
ECDC encourages Member States to raise awareness among healthcare providers, in particular those caring for MSM with regards sexually transmitted infections, about the possibility of infection with hepatitis A virus. Responsible authorities in Member States are encouraged to share microbiological and epidemiological details of new cases through Epidemic Intelligence Information System for Food- and Waterborne Diseases and Zoonoses (EPIS-FWD) for the benefit of progressing with multi-country outbreak investigations.
Rapid risk assessment: Public health risks related to communicable diseases during the hajj 2019, Saudi Arabia, 9–14 August 2019
2 Jul 2019 - In 2019, the hajj will take place between 9 and 14 August. The risk for EU/EEA citizens to become infected with communicable diseases during the 2019 hajj is considered low, thanks to the vaccination requirements for travelling to Makkah (Mecca) and the Saudi Arabian preparedness plans that address the management of health hazards during and after hajj.
Rapid risk assessment: Multi-country outbreak of hepatitis A virus genotype IA infections affecting EU countries in 2018
21 May 2018 - After the EPIS FWD notification of a cluster of hepatitis A cases infected with two distinct strains in several EU/EEA countries, this risk assessment presents the early findings of this multi-country hepatitis A outbreak and sets out initial options for response.
Rapid risk assessment: Hepatitis A outbreak in the EU/EEA mostly affecting men who have sex with men, 3rd update, 28 June 2017
29 Jun 2017 - Third update of a previous assessment on the ongoing transmission of hepatitis A virus infection mainly affecting men who have sex with men in EU/EEA countries.