Tetanus - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2017
In 2017, 82 cases of tetanus, including 46 confirmed cases, were reported in the EU/EEA. Adults aged 65 years and above were the most affected age group, with females accounting for the majority of the cases. Cases tended to occur more frequently in the warmer months, which are associated with higher levels of outdoor activity. The current epidemiology of tetanus in the EU/EEA may be explained by lower vaccination coverage or waning immunity in older populations. Due to the severity of tetanus, there is a need to maintain high vaccination rates in all age groups and continue implementing/developing strategies to protect specific groups, particularly the elderly, in countries with higher rates of disease.
Diphtheria - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2017
For 2017, 39 cases of diphtheria due to toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae or C. ulcerans were reported to ECDC. The highest proportion of C. ulcerans cases was among adults 45 years of age and above, whereas C. diphtheriae cases were more common in younger age groups. Among C. diphtheriae cases, 50% were reported as imported. High vaccination coverage is crucial to prevent diphtheria.
Hepatitis B - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2017
In 2017, 30 EU/EEA Member States reported 26 907 cases of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Excluding the five countries that only reported acute cases, the number of cases, 26 262, corresponds to a crude rate of 6.7 cases per 100 000 population.
Smallpox - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2017
Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980. There were no reports of confirmed or possible smallpox in the EU/EEA or other countries for 2017.
Yellow fever - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2017
For 2017, EU/EEA countries reported one case of yellow fever. The travel-related case was reported by the Netherlands with exposure in Suriname.
Invasive pneumococcal disease - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2017
In 2017, 23 886 confirmed cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) were reported in the EU/EEA.
Poliomyelitis - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2017
The WHO European Region was declared polio-free in 2002. Neither wild-type nor vaccine-type viruses were notified in the WHO European Region in 2017, but the risk of importation and subsequent transmission remains high in certain countries.
Zoonotic influenza - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2018
No human cases of avian influenza were reported in the EU/EEA. Only two human A(H7N9) infections were reported from China, a significant decrease compared with 2017. Sporadic human cases of avian influenza A(H5N6) and A(H9N2) were reported from China. In 2018, outbreaks and detections of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses such as A(H5N1), A(H5N2), AH(H5N5), A(H5N6) or A(H5N8) continued to affect poultry and wild and captured birds worldwide, but on a lower scale than in 2017. Influenza viruses A(H1N2)v and A(H3N2)v of swine origin caused human cases in Australia and the United States.
Invasive meningococcal disease - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2017
In 2017, 3 221 confirmed cases of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD), including 282 deaths, were reported in 30 EU/EEA Member States.
Haemophilus influenzae - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2017
In 2017, 3 888 confirmed cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease were reported in the EU/EEA.