Disease factsheet about poliomyelitis
Poliovirus is highly contagious and infected individuals shed virus in the faeces and from oral secretions, thus the mode of transmission is person-to-person, both via the faecal-oral and the oral-oral routes.
Facts about tickborne relapsing fever
Tickborne relapsing fever (TBRF) is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected soft ticks. The disease is characterised by relapsing or recurring episodes of fever, often accompanied by headache, muscle and joint aches and nausea.
Factsheet about Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is an obligate human pathogen and an important cause of invasive bacterial infections in both children and adults, with the highest incidence among young children.
Facts about healthcare-associated infections in long-term care facilities
In Europe, most long-term care facilities are for the elderly, including general nursing homes, residential homes and mixed facilities. In 2013, there were approximately 63 224 care facilities for older adults with a capacity of approximately 3.6 million beds.
Facts about HIV/AIDS
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains one of the most important communicable diseases in Europe. It is an infection associated with serious disease, persistently high costs of treatment and care, significant number of deaths and shortened life expectancy.
Facts about Japanese encephalitis
The Japanese encephalitis virus is present in Asia, from Japan to India and Pakistan, and outbreaks are erratic and spatially and temporally limited phenomena, occurring quite unpredictably, even if all conditions appear to be present in a definite place. It is a leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, with 30-50,000 cases reported annually.
Disease factsheet about pneumococcal disease
Despite good access to effective antibiotics, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) is still a major cause of disease and death in both developing and developed countries. Pneumococci are the main cause of bacterial respiratory tract infections, such as pneumonia, middle ear infection, and sinusitis, in all age groups.
Disease factsheet about rubella
Rubella is a mild febrile rash illness caused by rubella virus. It is transmitted from person to person via droplets (the virus is present in throat secretions). It affects mainly, but not only, children and when pregnant women are infected, it may result in malformation of the foetus. Humans are the only reservoir of infection.