Questions and answers on influenza pandemics
A pandemic is the rapid spread of a new human influenza around the world. Influenza pandemics happen when a new strain of a flu virus appears which can infect humans, to which most people have no immunity and which can transmit efficiently from human to human.
Influenza pandemic preparedness
Influenza pandemics, whether mild, moderate or severe, affect a large proportion of the population and require a multisectoral response over several months or even years. For this reason, countries develop plans describing their strategies for responding to a pandemic supported by operational plans at national and subnational levels.
Influenza pandemic preparedness plans
This page is listing influenza pandemic preparedness plans for EU countries, EFTA countries, Candidate countries and from the Commission of the European Communities and the World Health Organization.
Surveillance reports for the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic
Page listing surveillance reports for the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic was declared over in August 2010 by the World Health Organization. Europe has now entered a new inter-pandemic phase of seasonal influenza.
Outbreak reports for the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic
Page listing outbreak reports for the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic was declared over in August 2010 by the World Health Organization. Europe has now entered a new inter-pandemic phase of seasonal influenza.
Timeline on the pandemic (H1N1) 2009
This timeline of the 2009 Influenza Pandemic runs from the first described cases in California in April 2009 to July 10th 2010 when the WHO Director General declared that the pandemic was over. It describes events from the perspective of European Union and European Economic Area institutions and countries. However it also contains global events of relevance to Europe, such as declarations of phase changes. Where possible, links are given to primary published documentation. Events, decisions and meetings taking place at a European Level are especially emphasised.
Questions and answers on the pandemic (H1N1) 2009
What is the influenza A(H1N1)v virus? What is the origin of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus? What is the difference between the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and swine influenza?
Pandemic 2009 evaluations and lessons learnt
With the pandemic finishing many countries and international bodies are undertaking evaluations or even formal enquiries to assess how well their plans and preparations worked against the particular features of the 2009 pandemic. ECDC is aware of at least 16 international and multinational evaluations that are underway and are relevant to European countries. Some are general but many more relate to specialist areas like vaccination, surveillance or communications. There are also many national evaluations and lessons learnt exercises. In this table ECDC lists and describes the evaluations it is aware of and that have published a report (interim or final) or have announced some initial details. International reports come first followed by country specific reports from European countries organised alphabetically. ECDC would welcome details of other evaluation and lessons learnt exercises that have been published.
WHO recommendations for influenza virus vaccine composition for the 2018 southern hemisphere influenza season
The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the composition of the trivalent influenza vaccine for the southern hemisphere winter 2018 influenza season in a report published 28 September 2017.