Rapid risk assessment: Potential resurgence of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza
The increased reports of A(H5N1) outbreaks in poultry and wild bird populations, and the emergence of a further evolved lineage of the virus in poultry in some countries, do not change the current assessment of the risk to human health.
Rapid risk assessment: A(H5N1) Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Egypt – Implications for human health in Europe
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) infections are continuing to occur in poultry and humans in Egypt. However there is no evidence of a significant change in the pattern of human illness and deaths related to A(H5N1) virus infections in the country. Certainly there are no epidemiological data or analyses consistent with adaptation of these viruses to humans.
Risk assessment: Laboratory-created A(H5N1) viruses transmissible between ferrets
The results of two, as yet unpublished, investigations of laboratory-induced genetic changes in avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses have been reported to have found that a surprisingly few number of changes make the viruses transmissible between ferrets, the most commonly used model for the way influenza behaves in humans. The possibility that this could have resulted in the development in laboratories of A(H5N1) influenza viruses transmissible between humans has caused concern for public safety and generated unusually high levels of debate in the scientific community. This report summarises and explains the complex public health and scientific issues around these developments including the positive and negative aspects of some of the responses that have been proposed internationally.
Cross-species avian influenza among mammalians - report of fatal avian influenza in New England harbour sealsArchived
This academic article describes virological findings and pathological consequences of a strain of influenza A(H3N8) recently identified as part of the investigations of an outbreak of pneumonia among harbour seals in New England in the autumn.
Communicable disease threats report, 9-15 December 2012, week 50
The ECDC communicable disease threats report is a weekly bulletin intended for epidemiologists and health professionals in the area of communicable disease prevention and control. Summarising information gathered by ECDC through its epidemic intelligence activities regarding communicable disease threats of concern to the European Union, it also provides updates on the global situation and changes in the epidemiology of communicable diseases with potential to affect Europe, including diseases that are the focus of eradication efforts.
Annual Epidemiological Report 2012 [2010 data]
The sixth edition of the Annual Epidemiological Report on communicable diseases in Europe provides a comprehensive summary of surveillance data for 2010 and an analysis of the public health threats detected in 2011 through ECDC’s routine epidemic intelligence.
Rapid risk assessment: Severe respiratory disease associated with a novel influenza A virus, A(H7N9) China
On 31 March 2013, the Chinese authorities announced the identification of a novel influenza A virus, A(H7N9), in three seriously ill people from two provinces presenting with respiratory infections. So far, no epidemiological link has been identified between those three patients. When testing for the influenza virus, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention identified genes from both A(H7N9) and A(H9N2) viruses, thus indicating a novel reassortant avian influenza A virus. In its initial assessment of the situation, the ECDC rapid risk assessment concludes that the risk of the spread of the virus in Europe can be considered low at this stage.
Human infection with a novel avian influenza virus, A(H7N9), China - 2nd update, 8 May 2013
This second update to ECDC's initial risk assessment concludes that the risk of the disease spreading to Europe via humans or through poultry is still low at this time.
Epidemiological update of 15 April: avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China
Since the previous ECDC epidemiological update, 20 new cases of avian influenza A(H7N9) have been reported, including two fatalities in previously confirmed cases. The geographical spread includes two additional provinces: Beijing and Henan.
Epidemiological update of 13 April: avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China
As of 12 April 2013, 40 human cases of infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus have been reported in four provinces of China: Shanghai (20), Jiangsu (12), Zhejiang (6) and Anhui (2). Of these cases, 11 people have died, 27 are severe cases and three are mild cases. No epidemiological link has been identified among cases.