ECDC Vaccine Scheduler
The Vaccine Scheduler is an interactive tool that shows vaccination schedules for individual EU/EEA countries and specific age groups. With this tool comparisons can be made for vaccination schedules between two countries or by disease for all or a selection of countries.
- Hepatitis A
- Hepatitis B
- Human papillomavirus infection
- Influenza in humans, seasonal
- Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease
- Meningococcal disease
- Pneumococcal disease
- Prevention and control
- Rotavirus infection
- Tick-borne diseases
Influenza vaccine effectiveness
Vaccine effectiveness is an estimate of the likelihood that a vaccine prevents influenza infection when used in everyday practice. To establish how well influenza vaccines work each season, influenza vaccine effectiveness is measured in observational studies. Vaccine effectiveness is an estimate of the likelihood that a vaccine prevents influenza infection when used in everyday practice.
Factsheet about seasonal influenza
Influenza is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and sometimes the lungs. It can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. The best way to prevent flu is by getting a flu vaccine each year.
Expert opinion on neuraminidase inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza - review of recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses
This ECDC expert opinion confirms earlier assessments by ECDC and national authorities that there is no significant new evidence to support any changes to the approved indications and recommended use of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) in EU/EEA Member States.
Infographic: How do antivirals treat and protect against influenza?
This ECDC infographic explains how antivirals treat and protect against influenza. The recommendations to treat patients with severe influenza are based on the evidence from randomised controlled trials, observational studies, extrapolation from studies, and a generally benign safety profile of these medicines.
Expert opinion on neuraminidase inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza
This ECDC expert opinion confirms earlier assessments by ECDC and national authorities that there is no significant new evidence to support any changes to the approved indications and recommended use of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) in EU/EEA Member States. Recommendations to treat patients with severe influenza – or those at high risk of the complications of influenza – and provide prophylaxis to the most vulnerable and their families are based on the evidence from randomised controlled trials, evidence from observational studies, extrapolation from studies, and a generally benign safety profile of these medicines.
Risk groups for severe influenza
Some people are at high risk of serious complications as a result of influenza, some of which can be life-threatening and result in death. The risk groups includes people who are more likely than others to develop severe disease if they should be infected, such as the elderly, pregnant women, young children and people with underlying health conditions.
Types of seasonal influenza vaccine
Injected trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines are most commonly used throughout the world. Influenza antigen preparation varies between manufacturers. The inactivated influenza vaccines available in the EU/EEA may contain either split virion influenza virus products or subunit influenza products. Adjuvanted inactivated subunit influenza vaccine for older people is available in some EU/EEA Member States and is since 2015 authorised for younger children in Canada but not yet in Europe.
Immunity following influenza disease and administration of influenza vaccines
For infants the first encounter with influenza viruses commonly occurs in their first or second winter season. Subsequently, each individual acquires a number of influenza infections throughout life. It is expected that up to ~15% of a European population in a temperate climate is infected with influenza in any winter season with higher percentages in children and lower in older people.
Review of the scientific literature on drivers and barriers of seasonal influenza vaccination coverage in the EU/EEA
The report aims to provide a critical review of evidence on the barriers and drivers of seasonal influenza vaccination coverage in the EU/EEA. The report focuses on high-risk groups where high coverage of seasonal flu vaccination is most important. The 2009 Council of the European Union Recommendation on seasonal influenza vaccination encourages countries to implement measures that would increase seasonal influenza vaccination uptake to at least 75% for defined older age groups, and, if possible, for other risk groups. In support of this, the ECDC report summarises the evidence on what are the barriers and what are the drivers for seasonal influenza vaccination by each risk group