Facts about typhoid and paratyphoid fever
Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers are systemic diseases caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi, respectively.
Timeline on the pandemic (H1N1) 2009
This timeline of the 2009 Influenza Pandemic runs from the first described cases in California in April 2009 to July 10th 2010 when the WHO Director General declared that the pandemic was over. It describes events from the perspective of European Union and European Economic Area institutions and countries. However it also contains global events of relevance to Europe, such as declarations of phase changes. Where possible, links are given to primary published documentation. Events, decisions and meetings taking place at a European Level are especially emphasised.
Facts about tuberculosis
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease that can be fatal. It most commonly affects the lungs.
Seasonal influenza vaccination strategies
The immunity that is elicited by influenza vaccines is not as long lived as the immunity following natural influenza infection. This is especially so for individuals in the so-called risk groups, hence people have to be vaccinated annually. There are three influenza immunisation strategies used in Europe: to protect the vulnerable, to protect healthy children, adolescents and adults and to reduce overall influenza transmission.
Facts about cholera
Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera of serogroups O1 or O139. Humans are the only relevant reservoir, even though Vibrios can survive for a long time in coastal waters contaminated by human excreta.
Facts about hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is a liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and is spread through contact with infected body fluids or blood products. Following acute infection with HBV, some people go on to develop a chronic infection.
Facts about rabies
Rabies is a disease caused by rabies virus (a Lyssavirus). Classic rabies is a zoonosis (infection that could spread from animals to humans), and most animals are susceptible to it.
Disease facts about rubella
Rubella is a mild febrile rash illness caused by rubella virus. It is transmitted from person to person via droplets (the virus is present in throat secretions). It affects mainly, but not only, children and when pregnant women are infected, it may result in malformation of the foetus. Humans are the only reservoir of infection.
Disease facts about seasonal influenza
Seasonal influenza is a vaccine-preventable disease that each year infects approximately ten to thirty per cent of Europe's population, and causes hundreds of thousands of hospitalisations across Europe.