WHO Guidance for Surveillance during an Influenza Pandemic
This guidance is an update to an earlier document “Global surveillance during an influenza pandemic”, published in April 2009. It takes the lesions learned from the 2009 influenza pandemic into consideration and focuses on the key surveillance components needed during an influenza pandemic. The purpose of the updated guidance is to outline the surveillance strategies and essential data requirements that Member States can use throughout the course of an influenza pandemic to ensure informed risk management decisions in pandemic response and fulfilment of IHR (2005) core capacity requirements.
WHO Europe: Influenza
WHO/Europe aim to reduce influenza-related morbidity and mortality by strengthening virological and epidemiological surveillance for mild and severe influenza; using surveillance data to estimate the burden of influenza in order to prioritize national influenza vaccination programmes; and maintaining and strengthening pandemic preparedness activities at the national level. WHO/Europe also monitors the emergence of other respiratory pathogens that have the potential to spread among humans. These include coronaviruses, which cause a range of illnesses from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to the common cold.
CDC (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention): Influenza
CDC works 24/7 to protect America from health, safety and security threats, both foreign and in the U.S. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are chronic or acute, curable or preventable, human error or deliberate attack, CDC fights disease and supports communities and citizens to do the same.
WHO online training courses: Preparing for pandemics - fighting against influenza threats
Every few decades a new, and potentially deadly, influenza virus emerges and spreads worldwide. These events – influenza pandemics – are a threat all countries need to prepare for. The Preparing for pandemics channel brings together courses on various aspects of preparedness, including surveillance, public health measures and risk communication during a pandemic. You can learn the basic epidemiology and virology of influenza. You can learn the differences (and similarities) between zoonotic influenza, seasonal influenza and pandemic influenza. And you can get informed about how WHO, Member States, industry and other stakeholders work together in the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP) Framework.
Joint WHO/Europe–ECDC Annual European Influenza Surveillance Meeting, 2018
The joint annual influenza surveillance meeting by ECDC and the WHO Regional Office for Europe took place on 6 - 8 June 2018 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Invited participants were epidemiological and virological surveillance experts nominated by national health authorities as well as representatives from international institutions, covering the 53 countries of the EU/EEA and the WHO European region. The meeting was by invitation only.
Difficulties in estimating early incidence of influenza infection in a pandemic – study with multiple approaches in Singapore and a review of other studiesArchived
This paper and review from a Singapore-based group compared results obtained for estimating rates of new infections during the 2009 pandemic. They derived rates from paired specimens from the same patient (serum cohort approach), cross-sectional serological surveys, rates of unconfirmed syndromic influenza-like-illness (ILI) obtained from primary care physicians in sentinel general practices, and combined clinical repos with laboratory confirmed samples.
Outbreak with a novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China - scenarios and triggers for assessing risks and planning responses in the European Union, May 2013.
Schenk, C., Plachouras, D., Danielsson, N., Nicoll, A., Robesyn, E., Coulombier, D.