Vaccine-preventable diseases

Latest updates

Data

West Nile fever in Europe in 2017; updated 20 October

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News

Influenza surveillance for the 2017-2018 season is starting

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Publication

Communicable disease threats report, 15-21 October 2017, week 42

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Data

West Nile fever in Europe in 2017 and previous transmission seasons

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Publication

Communicable disease threats report, 15-21 October 2017, week 42

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Publication

Evaluation of ECDC Ebola deployment in Guinea

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Publication

Vector control with a focus on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes - Literature review and analysis

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Publication

ECDC/EFSA joint report: Avian influenza overview October 2016–August 2017

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News

Influenza surveillance for the 2017-2018 season is starting

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News

European Antibiotic Awareness Day: new website, new online resources

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News

Measles in the EU/EEA: current outbreaks, latest data and trends – October 2017

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News

Epidemiological update: multi-country outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis with MLVA profile 2-9-7-3-2 or 2-9-6-3-2 infections

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Event

European Antibiotic Awareness Day 2017

18 Nov 2017

Event

European Scientific Conference on Applied Infectious Disease Epidemiology (ESCAIDE)

6 Nov 2017 - 8 Nov 2017

Event

Course: Methods and tools for evidence-based practice with focus on infectious diseases

9 Nov 2017
Radisson Blu Waterfront Stockholm, Sweden

Event

Course: Methods and tools for evidence-based practice with focus on infectious diseases

25 Jan 2018 - 28 Jan 2018
ECDC

Data

West Nile fever in Europe in 2017; updated 20 October

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Data

West Nile fever in Europe in 2017 and previous transmission seasons

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Data

Dermacentor reticulatus - current known distribution in Europe, October 2017

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Data

Hyalomma marginatum - current known distribution in Europe, October 2017

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Vaccine-preventable diseases

2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic

The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic was declared over in August 2010 by the World Health Organization. Europe has now entered a new inter-pandemic phase of seasonal influenza.

Cholera

Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera of serogroups O1 or O139. Humans are the only relevant reservoir, even though Vibrios can survive for a long time in coastal waters contaminated by human excreta.

Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)

Congenital rubella is the infection of a foetus with rubella virus following the infection of the mother during pregnancy. ‘Congenital’ indicates that the foetus also becomes infected during pregnancy.

Diphtheria

Diphtheria is a disease caused by bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans. It can cause respiratory symptoms or non-respiratory forms that affect other parts of the body, including the skin.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and is spread through contact with infected body fluids or blood products.

Human papillomavirus

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer after breast cancer to affect women aged 15–44 years in the European Union. Each year, there are around 33 000 cases of cervical cancer in the EU, and 15 000 deaths. The primary cause of cervical cancer is a persistent infection of the genital tract by some specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV).

Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is an obligate human pathogen and an important cause of invasive bacterial infections in both children and adults, with the highest incidence among young children.

Japanese encephalitis

The Japanese encephalitis virus is present in Asia, from Japan to India and Pakistan, and outbreaks are erratic and spatially and temporally limited phenomena, occurring quite unpredictably, even if all conditions appear to be present in a definite place. It is a leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, with 30-50,000 cases reported annually. Most human infections are asymptomatic. On average, one person in 200 infected develops a severe neuroinvasive illness. The case fatality rate in patients with severe disease is 20- 30% 

Measles

Measles is an acute, highly contagious viral disease capable of causing epidemics. Infectivity is close to 100% in susceptible individuals and in the pre-vaccine era measles would affect nearly every individual during childhood.

Meningococcal disease

Meningococcal disease is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, a bacterium with human carriers as the only reservoir. It is carried in the nose, where it can remain for long periods without producing symptoms.

Mumps

Mumps is an acute illness caused by the mumps virus. It is characterised by fever and swelling of one or more salivary glands (mumps is the only cause of epidemic infectious parotitis).

Pertussis

Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a highly contagious acute respiratory infection, caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. The disease is characterised by a severe cough, which can last two months or even longer.

Pneumococcal disease

Despite good access to effective antibiotics, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) is still a major cause of disease and death in both developing and developed countries.

Poliomyelitis

Poliomyelitis, also known as polio or infantile paralysis, is a vaccine-preventable systemic viral infection affecting the motor neurons of the central nervous system (CNS). Historically, it has been a major cause of mortality, acute paralysis and lifelong disabilities but large scale immunisation programmes have eliminated polio from most areas of the world.

Rabies

Rabies is a disease caused by rabies virus (a Lyssavirus). Classic rabies is a zoonosis (infection that could spread from animals to humans), and most animals are susceptible to it. The main reservoir is wild and domestic canids (dogs, wolves, foxes, coyotes, dingoes, jackals). Six other Lyssaviruses are now recognised, whose potential of giving disease in humans is variable, and for which bats are the reservoir. Of these, two are present in Europe (European bat lyssavirus 1 and 2).

Rotavirus infection

Rotavirus infection is an acute infectious disease mainly affecting children. The main symptoms are fever, vomiting and diarrhoea and many affected children suffer from extensive fluid loss in need of medical attention. The incubation period is 1-2 days.

Rubella

Rubella is a mild febrile rash illness caused by rubella virus. It is transmitted from person to person via droplets (the virus is present in throat secretions). It affects mainly, but not only, children and when pregnant women are infected, it may result in malformation of the foetus. Humans are the only reservoir of infection.

Seasonal influenza

Seasonal influenza is a preventable infectious disease with mostly respiratory symptoms. It is caused by influenza virus and is easily transmitted, predominantly via the droplet and contact routes and by indirect spread from respiratory secretions on hands etc.

Smallpox

Smallpox was a systemic disease, officially eradicated since 1979 (WHO), caused by infection with the Variola major virus, whose only reservoir was infected humans.

Tetanus

Tetanus is an often fatal disease, which is present worldwide. It is a consequence of a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The main reservoirs of the bacterium are herbivores, which harbour the bacteria in their bowels (with no consequences for them) and disseminate the “spore form” of the bacteria in the environment with their faeces.

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease that can be fatal. It most commonly affects the lungs.

Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever

Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers are systemic diseases caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi, respectively.

Varicella

Varicella (chickenpox) is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which also causes shingles. The virus spreads through the body into the skin causing rashes to appear.

Yellow fever

Yellow fever (YF) is a mosquito-borne infection, distributed in west, central and east Africa and in South America. The disease can cause a wide spectrum of symptoms, from mild to fatal. In severe cases there may be spontaneous haemorrhage. Mortality of these clinical cases can be as high as 80%, on a par with Ebola, Marburg and other haemorrhagic viral infections.

Disease programmes and networks

European Diphtheria Surveillance Network (EDSN)

EUVAC.Net

European Invasive Bacterial Disease Surveillance Network (EU-IBD)

Eurosurveillance

24 August 2017 - Large measles outbreak introduced by asylum seekers and spread among the insufficiently vaccinated resident population, Berlin, October 2014 to August 2015
17 August 2017 - A nosocomial measles outbreak in Italy, February-April 2017
17 August 2017 - A cluster of measles linked to an imported case, Finland, 2017