Vaccine-preventable diseases

Latest updates

Data

Weekly influenza update, week 6, January 2018

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Publication

Communicable disease threats report 11-17 February 2018, week 7

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Publication

Communicable disease threats report, 4-10 February 2018, week 6

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Data

Distribution of measles cases by country, December 2017 in EU/EEA countries

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Publication

Communicable disease threats report 11-17 February 2018, week 7

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Publication

Communicable disease threats report, 4-10 February 2018, week 6

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Publication

Monthly measles and rubella monitoring report, February 2018

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Publication

External quality assessment scheme for Bordetella pertussis serology 2016

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News

Measles cases in the EU treble in 2017, outbreaks still ongoing

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News

Low uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination in Europe may jeopardise capacity to protect people in next pandemic

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News

New settlements of Aedes aegypti raising concerns for continental EU

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ECDC – EMCDDA cooperation aims to build a healthier Europe

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Event

Public consultation on strengthening cooperation against vaccine-preventable diseases

21 Dec 2017 - 15 Mar 2018
Jan 2018

Event

Official visit of ECDC Director to the WHO Regional Office for Europe

15 Jan 2018
WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen
Feb 2018

Event

ECDC ENLabCap consultation meeting with EU enlargement countries

1 Feb 2018 - 2 Feb 2018
Podgorica, Montenegro
Dec 2017

Event

World AIDS Day 2017

1 Dec 2017

Data

Weekly influenza update, week 6, January 2018

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Distribution of measles cases by country, December 2017 in EU/EEA countries

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Weekly influenza update, week 5, January 2018

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Distribution of measles deaths by country, January 2017–December 2017, EU/EEA countries

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Vaccine-preventable diseases

2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic

The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic was declared over in August 2010 by the World Health Organization. Europe has now entered a new inter-pandemic phase of seasonal influenza.

Cholera

Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera of serogroups O1 or O139. Humans are the only relevant reservoir, even though Vibrios can survive for a long time in coastal waters contaminated by human excreta.

Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)

Congenital rubella is the infection of a foetus with rubella virus following the infection of the mother during pregnancy. ‘Congenital’ indicates that the foetus also becomes infected during pregnancy.

Diphtheria

Diphtheria is a disease caused by bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans. It can cause respiratory symptoms or non-respiratory forms that affect other parts of the body, including the skin.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and is spread through contact with infected body fluids or blood products.

Human papillomavirus

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer after breast cancer to affect women aged 15–44 years in the European Union. Each year, there are around 33 000 cases of cervical cancer in the EU, and 15 000 deaths. The primary cause of cervical cancer is a persistent infection of the genital tract by some specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV).

Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is an obligate human pathogen and an important cause of invasive bacterial infections in both children and adults, with the highest incidence among young children.

Japanese encephalitis

The Japanese encephalitis virus is present in Asia, from Japan to India and Pakistan, and outbreaks are erratic and spatially and temporally limited phenomena, occurring quite unpredictably, even if all conditions appear to be present in a definite place. It is a leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, with 30-50,000 cases reported annually. Most human infections are asymptomatic. On average, one person in 200 infected develops a severe neuroinvasive illness. The case fatality rate in patients with severe disease is 20- 30% 

Measles

Measles is an acute, highly contagious viral disease capable of causing epidemics. Infectivity is close to 100% in susceptible individuals and in the pre-vaccine era measles would affect nearly every individual during childhood.

Meningococcal disease

Meningococcal disease is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, a bacterium with human carriers as the only reservoir. It is carried in the nose, where it can remain for long periods without producing symptoms.

Mumps

Mumps is an acute illness caused by the mumps virus. It is characterised by fever and swelling of one or more salivary glands (mumps is the only cause of epidemic infectious parotitis).

Pertussis

Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a highly contagious acute respiratory infection, caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. The disease is characterised by a severe cough, which can last two months or even longer.

Pneumococcal disease

Despite good access to effective antibiotics, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) is still a major cause of disease and death in both developing and developed countries.

Poliomyelitis

Poliomyelitis, also known as polio or infantile paralysis, is a vaccine-preventable systemic viral infection affecting the motor neurons of the central nervous system (CNS). Historically, it has been a major cause of mortality, acute paralysis and lifelong disabilities but large scale immunisation programmes have eliminated polio from most areas of the world.

Rabies

Rabies is a disease caused by rabies virus (a Lyssavirus). Classic rabies is a zoonosis (infection that could spread from animals to humans), and most animals are susceptible to it. The main reservoir is wild and domestic canids (dogs, wolves, foxes, coyotes, dingoes, jackals). Six other Lyssaviruses are now recognised, whose potential of giving disease in humans is variable, and for which bats are the reservoir. Of these, two are present in Europe (European bat lyssavirus 1 and 2).

Rotavirus infection

Rotavirus infection is an acute infectious disease mainly affecting children. The main symptoms are fever, vomiting and diarrhoea and many affected children suffer from extensive fluid loss in need of medical attention. The incubation period is 1-2 days.

Rubella

Rubella is a mild febrile rash illness caused by rubella virus. It is transmitted from person to person via droplets (the virus is present in throat secretions). It affects mainly, but not only, children and when pregnant women are infected, it may result in malformation of the foetus. Humans are the only reservoir of infection.

Seasonal influenza

Seasonal influenza is a preventable infectious disease with mostly respiratory symptoms. It is caused by influenza virus and is easily transmitted, predominantly via the droplet and contact routes and by indirect spread from respiratory secretions on hands etc.

Smallpox

Smallpox was a systemic disease, officially eradicated since 1979 (WHO), caused by infection with the Variola major virus, whose only reservoir was infected humans.

Tetanus

Tetanus is an often fatal disease, which is present worldwide. It is a consequence of a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The main reservoirs of the bacterium are herbivores, which harbour the bacteria in their bowels (with no consequences for them) and disseminate the “spore form” of the bacteria in the environment with their faeces.

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease that can be fatal. It most commonly affects the lungs.

Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever

Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers are systemic diseases caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi, respectively.

Varicella

Varicella (chickenpox) is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which also causes shingles. The virus spreads through the body into the skin causing rashes to appear.

Yellow fever

Yellow fever (YF) is a mosquito-borne infection, distributed in west, central and east Africa and in South America. The disease can cause a wide spectrum of symptoms, from mild to fatal. In severe cases there may be spontaneous haemorrhage. Mortality of these clinical cases can be as high as 80%, on a par with Ebola, Marburg and other haemorrhagic viral infections.