Latest surveillance data on vaccine-preventable diseases
The Surveillance Atlas of Infectious Diseases is a tool that allows users to interact and manipulate the data to produce a variety of tables and maps.Go to the Atlas
Communication toolkit on immunisation
This ECDC communication toolkit aims to support EU/EEA countries in their communication initiatives to increase immunisation uptake, in particular childhood vaccination.Go to the toolkit
Achievements, challenges and major outputs 2016: Highlights from the Annual Report of the Director
Antimicrobial resistance and causes of non-prudent use of antibiotics in human medicine: results of the ARNA project
2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic
The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic was declared over in August 2010 by the World Health Organization. Europe has now entered a new inter-pandemic phase of seasonal influenza.
Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera of serogroups O1 or O139. Humans are the only relevant reservoir, even though Vibrios can survive for a long time in coastal waters contaminated by human excreta.
Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)
Congenital rubella is the infection of a foetus with rubella virus following the infection of the mother during pregnancy. ‘Congenital’ indicates that the foetus also becomes infected during pregnancy.
Diphtheria is a disease caused by bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans. It can cause respiratory symptoms or non-respiratory forms that affect other parts of the body, including the skin.
Hepatitis B is a liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and is spread through contact with infected body fluids or blood products.
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer after breast cancer to affect women aged 15–44 years in the European Union. Each year, there are around 33 000 cases of cervical cancer in the EU, and 15 000 deaths. The primary cause of cervical cancer is a persistent infection of the genital tract by some specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV).
Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is an obligate human pathogen and an important cause of invasive bacterial infections in both children and adults, with the highest incidence among young children.
The Japanese encephalitis virus is present in Asia, from Japan to India and Pakistan, and outbreaks are erratic and spatially and temporally limited phenomena, occurring quite unpredictably, even if all conditions appear to be present in a definite place. It is a leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, with 30-50,000 cases reported annually. Most human infections are asymptomatic. On average, one person in 200 infected develops a severe neuroinvasive illness. The case fatality rate in patients with severe disease is 20- 30%
Measles is an acute, highly contagious viral disease capable of causing epidemics. Infectivity is close to 100% in susceptible individuals and in the pre-vaccine era measles would affect nearly every individual during childhood.
Meningococcal disease is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, a bacterium with human carriers as the only reservoir. It is carried in the nose, where it can remain for long periods without producing symptoms.
Mumps is an acute illness caused by the mumps virus. It is characterised by fever and swelling of one or more salivary glands (mumps is the only cause of epidemic infectious parotitis).
Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a highly contagious acute respiratory infection, caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. The disease is characterised by a severe cough, which can last two months or even longer.
Despite good access to effective antibiotics, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) is still a major cause of disease and death in both developing and developed countries.
Poliomyelitis, also known as polio or infantile paralysis, is a vaccine-preventable systemic viral infection affecting the motor neurons of the central nervous system (CNS). Historically, it has been a major cause of mortality, acute paralysis and lifelong disabilities but large scale immunisation programmes have eliminated polio from most areas of the world.
Rabies is a disease caused by rabies virus (a Lyssavirus). Classic rabies is a zoonosis (infection that could spread from animals to humans), and most animals are susceptible to it. The main reservoir is wild and domestic canids (dogs, wolves, foxes, coyotes, dingoes, jackals). Six other Lyssaviruses are now recognised, whose potential of giving disease in humans is variable, and for which bats are the reservoir. Of these, two are present in Europe (European bat lyssavirus 1 and 2).
Rotavirus infection is an acute infectious disease mainly affecting children. The main symptoms are fever, vomiting and diarrhoea and many affected children suffer from extensive fluid loss in need of medical attention. The incubation period is 1-2 days.
Rubella is a mild febrile rash illness caused by rubella virus. It is transmitted from person to person via droplets (the virus is present in throat secretions). It affects mainly, but not only, children and when pregnant women are infected, it may result in malformation of the foetus. Humans are the only reservoir of infection.
Seasonal influenza is a preventable infectious disease with mostly respiratory symptoms. It is caused by influenza virus and is easily transmitted, predominantly via the droplet and contact routes and by indirect spread from respiratory secretions on hands etc.
Smallpox was a systemic disease, officially eradicated since 1979 (WHO), caused by infection with the Variola major virus, whose only reservoir was infected humans.
Tetanus is an often fatal disease, which is present worldwide. It is a consequence of a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The main reservoirs of the bacterium are herbivores, which harbour the bacteria in their bowels (with no consequences for them) and disseminate the “spore form” of the bacteria in the environment with their faeces.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease that can be fatal. It most commonly affects the lungs.
Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever
Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers are systemic diseases caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi, respectively.
Varicella (chickenpox) is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which also causes shingles. The virus spreads through the body into the skin causing rashes to appear.
Yellow fever (YF) is a mosquito-borne infection, distributed in west, central and east Africa and in South America. The disease can cause a wide spectrum of symptoms, from mild to fatal. In severe cases there may be spontaneous haemorrhage. Mortality of these clinical cases can be as high as 80%, on a par with Ebola, Marburg and other haemorrhagic viral infections.