Threats and outbreaks
Outbreak of plague in Madagascar
Since August 2017 Madagascar has been experiencing an outbreak of plague. While plague outbreaks in Madagascar are not unexpected, the high proportion of pneumonic plague is of concern.Rapid Outbreak Assessment
Chikungunya in Italy
Chikungunya cases have been detected in Lazio region, Italy – notably in the cities of Anzio and Rome. Local transmission is not unexpected due to the presence of the mosquito vector, Aedes Albopictus.Read the rapid risk assessment
Hepatitis A outbreaks among men who have sex with men
1 173 hepatitis A cases are reported since June 2016, by 15 EU countries. Most cases are among men who have sex with men.Read rapid risk assessment:
Epidemiological update: multi-country outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis with MLVA profile 2-9-7-3-2 or 2-9-6-3-2 infections
Epidemiological update - indigenous Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases in the Apulia region, Italy
Outbreak of travel-associated Legionnaires' disease – Palmanova, Mallorca (Spain), September–October 2017
Rapid Risk Assessment: Outbreak of pneumonic plague in Madagascar: recent introduction in the Seychelles
Rapid risk assessment: Clusters of autochthonous chikungunya cases in Italy, first update
WHO recommendations for influenza virus vaccine composition for the 2018 southern hemisphere influenza season
WHO recommendations for influenza virus vaccine composition for the 2017-18 northern hemisphere season
Mutation of avian influenza A(H7N9): now highly pathogenic for poultry but risk of human-to-human transmission remains low
WHO statement: 12th meeting of the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations Emergency (IHR) regarding the international spread of poliovirus
Threats and outbreaks by disease and country
ECDC monitors current infectious disease outbreaks and assesses the risk to public health in Europe. ECDC experts provides technical support to the EU-level response to such threats.
Interim surveillance case definitions for reporting in EU
During outbreaks, ECDC issues draft interim case definitions for surveillance, to support classifying cases for epidemiological reporting in EU.
ECDC in the field
ECDC supports outbreak investigations through deploying ECDC missions, supporting the EU Med Corps and facilitating national experts participation in WHO and other missions.
ECDC has produced several tools to support and guide outbreak preparedness, investigation and response activities.
Toolkit for investigation and response to food and waterborne disease outbreaks
Series of tools that can be useful during an investigation of a European outbreak.View the toolkit
Epidemic intelligence and outbreak response
ECDC supports the response to infectious disease threats in the EU through rapid risk assessments and filed outbreak missionsRead about ECDC mandate