Autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus disease in Europe, 2007–2018

Chikungunya virus disease is a disease that is borne by Aedes mosquitoes and that is widely spread in tropical and subtropical regions. Globally, the virus is predominantly transmitted by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. While Ae. aegypti is so far not established in continental EU, Ae. albopictus is established in the southern and central parts of the EU and is spreading. 

Chikungunya is not endemic in the EU/EEA and the majority of the cases are travellers infected outside of the EU/EEA.  When the environmental conditions are favourable, in areas where Ae. albopictus is established, viraemic travel-related cases may generate a local transmission of the virus as demonstrated by the sporadic events of chikungunya virus transmission since 2007.

Year

Country, region, municipalities

Number of autochthonous cases

Period of circulation (probable)

Origin of the primary travel-related case (probable)

Virus

Presence

E1-A226V

References

2007

Italy, region of Emilia Romagna, (main transmission areas in Castiglione di Cervia and Castiglione di Ravenna)

≈ 330 suspected, probable and confirmed

July–September

India

CHIKV ECSA

 

Yes

[1,2]

2010

France, Var department, Fréjus

2

September

India

CHIKV ECSA

No

[3-5]

2014

France, Hérault department, Montpellier

12

September– October

Cameroon

CHIKV ECSA

 

Yes

[5,6]

2017

France, Var department, Le Cannet-les-Maures and Taradeau

17 (11 in Cannet-des-Maures and 6 in Taradeau)

July–September

 

Central Africa

CHIKV ECSA

 

Yes

[5,7,8]

2017

Italy, Lazio region (Anzio, Latina and Roma) and Calabria region (Guardavalle marina)

270 confirmed and 229 probable

August–November

Asia (India/Pakistan)

 

CHIKV ECSA

belonging to a branch of Indian Ocean Lineage (IOL) reported from Indian subcontinent (India, Pakistan)

No

[9-13]

 

 References

1.         Angelini R, Finarelli A, Angelini P, et al. Chikungunya in north-eastern Italy: a summing up of the outbreak. Euro Surveill. 2007 Nov(12(11):E071122 071122).

2.         Rezza R, Nicoletti L, Angelini R, Romi R, Finarelli AC, Panning M, et al. Infection with chikungunya virus in Italy: an outbreak in a temperate region. Lancet. 2007 December;30(9602):1840-6

3.         Grandadam M, Caro V, Plumet S, Thiberge JM, Souares Y, Failloux AB, et al. Chikungunya virus, southeastern France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011 May;17(5):910-3.

4.         Vega-Rua A, Zouache K, Caro V, Diancourt L, Delaunay P, Grandadam M, et al. High efficiency of temperate Aedes albopictus to transmit chikungunya and dengue viruses in the Southeast of France. PloS one. 2013;8(3):e59716.

5.         Franke F GS, Cochet A, Jeannin C, Leparc-Goffart I, de Valk H, et al. Émergences de dengue et de chikungunya en France métropolitaine, 2010-2018. Bull Epidémiol Hebd. 2019;19-20:374-82.

6.         Delisle E, Rousseau C, Broche B, Leparc-Goffart I, L'Ambert G, Cochet A, et al. Chikungunya outbreak in Montpellier, France, September to October 2014. Eurosurveillance. 2015;20(17):21108.

7.         C. Calba, M. Guerbois-Galla, F. Franke, C. Jeannin, M. Auzet-Caillaud, et al. Preliminary report of an autochthonous chikungunya outbreak in France, July to September 2017. Euro Surveill. 2017;22(39):pii=17-00647.

8.         Calba C, Guerbois-Galla M, Franke F, Jeannin C, Auzet-Caillaud M, Grard G, et al. Investigation of an autochthonous chikungunya outbreak, July–September 2017, France. Revue d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique. 2018;66:S387-S8.

9.         G. Venturi, M. Di Luca, C. Fortuna, M.E. Remoli, F. Riccardo, et al. Detection of a chikungunya outbreak in Central Italy, August to September 2017. Euro Surveill. 2017;22(39):pii=17-00646.

10.        Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Casi autoctoni di Chikungunya nella zona di Anzio (RM) Roma 2017. Available from: http://www.iss.it/mipi/?lang=1&id=261&tipo=1.

11.        Lindh E, Argentini C, Remoli ME, Fortuna C, Faggioni G, Benedetti E, et al. The Italian 2017 Outbreak Chikungunya Virus Belongs to an Emerging Aedes albopictus-Adapted Virus Cluster Introduced From the Indian Subcontinent. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019 Jan;6(1):ofy321.

12.        Riccardo F, Di Luca M, Venturi G, Del Manso M. A secondary autochthonous Chikungunya outbreak in a village in Calabria, Italy. Provisionally accepted, under review. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2019.

13.        Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Italy: autochtonous cases of chikungunya virus (updated 21 December 2017) Roma2017. Available from: http://www.salute.gov.it/portale/temi/documenti/chikungunya/bollettino_chikungunya_20171221.pdf.