ECDC risk assessment: 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic (Update 12 June 2009)
A new influenza A virus was identified by the United States CDC in April this year in samples from two Californian children and retrospectively in cases in Mexico (CDC 2009a, Fraser 2009, CDC 2009b). The new virus and the disease it caused were initially called ‘swine flu’. The basic genetic structure of the virus has been described and this information is available through publicly accessible websites (Trifonov 2009, Nava 2009). The virus has a number of genetic elements from two different types of swine influenza, but also elements originally from avian and human influenzas that were incorporated into other swine influenza viruses (Nava 2009). However, it is unclear if the specific reassortment leading to the new virus took place in pigs or humans.
Rapid risk assessment: Ebola virus disease outbreak in North Kivu and Ituri Provinces, Democratic Republic of the Congo – fifth update
19 Jul 2019 - This is the fifth update of a rapid risk assessment originally produced on 9 August 2018. This rapid risk assessment addresses the potential public health impact of Ebola virus disease for EU/EEA countries and assesses the likelihood of international expansion.
Rapid risk assessment: Public health risks related to communicable diseases during the hajj 2019, Saudi Arabia, 9–14 August 2019
2 Jul 2019 - In 2019, the hajj will take place between 9 and 14 August. The risk for EU/EEA citizens to become infected with communicable diseases during the 2019 hajj is considered low, thanks to the vaccination requirements for travelling to Makkah (Mecca) and the Saudi Arabian preparedness plans that address the management of health hazards during and after hajj.
Rapid risk assessment: Dengue outbreak in Réunion, France, and associated risk of autochthonous outbreak in the EU/EEA
18 Jun 2019 - This update of the risk assessment ‘Dengue outbreak in Réunion, France’ published on 5 July 2018, has been triggered by the significant size of the outbreak and its expected duration, which is anticipated to overlap with high vector activity in the southern EU.