Rapid Risk Assessment: Wound botulism among people who inject heroin in Norway
At the request of the European Commission, ECDC performed a risk assessment after six cases of wound botulism were reported in Norway among people who had injected heroin. As this is an ongoing problem, some relevant measures are proposed for consideration by other EU/EEA Member States.
As of 28 October 2013, six cases of wound botulism have been reported in Norway among people who had injected heroin. Two cases have been confirmed through mice inoculation and four are suspected cases with laboratory results pending. All cases reported heroin use and most reported intramuscular injection of heroin. They all reside in the Oslo area or in neighbouring municipalities.
The source of infection is thought to be a batch of contaminated heroin. The geographical distribution of the potentially contaminated heroin is unknown at this time, as is the distribution stage at which the heroin may have been contaminated.
The potential risk for the EU/EEA will depend on the stage of contamination. If heroin contamination occurred early in the stage of distribution, it cannot be excluded that additional wound botulism-infected heroin injectors will be identified in the EU/EEA. No person-to-person transmission has ever been reported.
Guidance on drug treatment and prevention and control of infections among people who inject drugs has recently been issued by ECDC and the EMCDDA. The two agencies will continue to monitor the evolution of this situation in terms of the epidemiological information available.
Rapid risk assessment: Ebola virus disease outbreak in North Kivu and Ituri Provinces, Democratic Republic of the Congo – fifth update
19 Jul 2019 - This is the fifth update of a rapid risk assessment originally produced on 9 August 2018. This rapid risk assessment addresses the potential public health impact of Ebola virus disease for EU/EEA countries and assesses the likelihood of international expansion.
Rapid risk assessment: Public health risks related to communicable diseases during the hajj 2019, Saudi Arabia, 9–14 August 2019
2 Jul 2019 - In 2019, the hajj will take place between 9 and 14 August. The risk for EU/EEA citizens to become infected with communicable diseases during the 2019 hajj is considered low, thanks to the vaccination requirements for travelling to Makkah (Mecca) and the Saudi Arabian preparedness plans that address the management of health hazards during and after hajj.
Rapid risk assessment: Dengue outbreak in Réunion, France, and associated risk of autochthonous outbreak in the EU/EEA
18 Jun 2019 - This update of the risk assessment ‘Dengue outbreak in Réunion, France’ published on 5 July 2018, has been triggered by the significant size of the outbreak and its expected duration, which is anticipated to overlap with high vector activity in the southern EU.