Autochthonous transmission of dengue in EU/EEA

Dengue is a disease that is borne by Aedes mosquitoes and that is widely spread in tropical and subtropical regions. Globally, the virus is predominantly transmitted by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. While Ae. aegypti is so far not established in continental EU, Ae. albopictus is established in the southern and central parts of the EU and is spreading. 

Dengue is not endemic in the EU/EEA and the vast majority of the cases are travellers infected outside of the EU/EEA.  When the environmental conditions are favourable, in areas where Ae. albopictus is established, viraemic travel-related cases may generate a local transmission of the virus, as demonstrated by the sporadic events of dengue virus transmission since 2010. 

Year

Country, region, municipalities

Number of autochthonous cases

Period of circulation (probable)

Origin of the primary travel-related case (probable)

Virus serotype

References

2010

Croatia, Korčula Island and the Pelješac peninsula

One case among a German traveller.

Two Croatian cases (and seven probable cases in same area with IgG and IgM positive)

August–October

Unknown

DEN-1

[1-3]

2010

France, Alpes-Maritimes department, Nice

Two

End August–September

Martinique

DEN-1

[4-6]

2013

France, Bouches–du-Rhône department, in the vicinity of Aix-en-Provence

One

October

Guadeloupe

DEN-2*

[6,7]

2014

France, Var department, Toulon

One

Early August

Unknown

DEN-1 (central America)

[6,8]

2014

France, Var department, Toulon

One

Early September

Unknown

DEN-2 (Asia)

[6,8]

2014

France, Bouches-du-Rhône department, Aubagne

Two

Late August–September

Unknown

DEN-2 (Asia)

[6,8]

2015

France, Gard department, Nîmes

Eight

July–September

French Polynesia

DEN-1

[9,10]

2018

France, Alpes Maritimes department, Saint Laurent du Var

Five

September–October

Unknown

DEN-2 (Asia)

[6,11]

2018

France, Hérault department, Montpellier

Two

September–August

Unknown

DEN-1 (central America)

[6,11]

2018

France, Gard department, Nîmes

One

October

French Polynesia

DEN-1 (Pacific)

[6]

2018

Spain, Murcia Region and possibly Province of Cádiz

Five

August–September

Unknown

DEN-1

[11]

 

References

1.       Gjenero-Margan I, Aleraj B, Krajcar D, Lesnikar V, Klobucar A, Pem-Novosel I, et al. Autochthonous dengue fever in Croatia, August-September 2010. Euro Surveill. 2011 Mar 3;16(9).

2.       Kurolt IC, Betica-Radic L, Dakovic-Rode O, Franco L, Zelena H, Tenorio A, et al. Molecular characterization of dengue virus 1 from autochthonous dengue fever cases in Croatia. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013 Mar;19(3):E163-5.

3.       Schmidt-Chanasit J, Haditsch M, Schoneberg I, Gunther S, Stark K, Frank C. Dengue virus infection in a traveller returning from Croatia to Germany. Euro Surveill. 2010 Oct 07;15(40).

4.       Vega-Rua A, Zouache K, Caro V, Diancourt L, Delaunay P, Grandadam M, et al. High efficiency of temperate Aedes albopictus to transmit chikungunya and dengue viruses in the Southeast of France. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e59716.

5.       G La Ruche YS, A Armengaud, F Peloux-Petiot, P Delaunay, P Desprès, A Lenglet, F Jourdain, I Leparc-Goffart, F Charlet, L Ollier, K Mantey, T Mollet, J P Fournier, R Torrents, K Leitmeyer, P Hilairet, H Zeller, W Van Bortel, D Dejour-Salamanca, M Grandadam, M Gastellu-Etchegorry. First two autochthonous dengue virus infections in metropolitan France, September 2010.  . Eurosurveillance. 2010;15(39).

6.       Franke F GS, Cochet A, Jeannin C, Leparc-Goffart I, de Valk H, et al. Émergences de dengue et de chikungunya en France métropolitaine, 2010-2018. Bull Epidémiol Hebd. 2019;19-20:374-82.

7.       Marchand E, Prat C, Jeannin C, Lafont E, Bergmann T, Flusin O, et al. Autochthonous case of dengue in France, October 2013. Euro Surveill. 2013 Dec 12;18(50):20661.

8.       Giron S, Rizzi J, Leparc-Goffart I, Septfons A, Tine R, Cadiou B, et al. New occurrence of autochthonous cases of dengue fever in southeast France, August-September 2014    Bulletin épidémiologique hebdomadaire,. 2014 2015 Apr 28;13-14:217.

9.       Succo T, Leparc-Goffart I, Ferre JB, Roiz D, Broche B, Maquart M, et al. Autochthonous dengue outbreak in Nimes, South of France, July to September 2015. Euro Surveill. 2016 May 26;21(21).

10.     Succo T, Noel H, Nikolay B, Maquart M, Cochet A, Leparc-Goffart I, et al. Dengue serosurvey after a 2-month long outbreak in Nimes, France, 2015: was there more than met the eye? Euro Surveill. 2018 Jun;23(23).

11.     European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Local transmission of dengue fever in France and Spain – 2018 — 22 October 2018. Stockholm: ECDC; 2018. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/portal/files/documents/08-10-2018-RRA-Dengue-France.pdf.