Canine leishmaniasis surveillance in a northern Italy kennelArchived
The presence of the disease was shown in the canine population for the first time in 2007 by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The parasite circulation was confirmed also by direct diagnostic tools, as PCR, cytology and cultural method, performed on different bioptic materials.
Baldelli R 1, Piva S 1, Salvatore D 1, Parigi M 1, Melloni O 2, Tamba M 3, Bellini R 4, Poglayen G 1.1 Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica Veterinaria e Patologia Animale - Università di Bologna, via Tolara di sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy2 Azienda Unità Sanitaria Locale - Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica, Bologna, Italy3 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell’Emilia-Romagna, Brescia, Italy4 Centro Agricoltura Ambiente “G. Nicoli”, Crevalcore (BO), ItalyVeterinary Parasitology Feb. 2011. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.01.052 [Epub ahead of print]An epidemiological survey on canine leishmaniasis (CanL) was performed during a 3-year period (2007-2009) in a public kennel of the Bologna province.
The presence of the disease was shown in the canine population for the first time in 2007 by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The parasite circulation was confirmed also by direct diagnostic tools, as PCR, cytology and cultural method, performed on different bioptic materials. The parasite was isolated and identified as Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON 1. The serological monitoring was performed also in 2008 and 2009 on animals that previously showed negative or uncertain results. The incidence values calculated by significant seroconversions in IFAT titre ≥1/160, ranged between 4.9% and 6.6%, indicating a stable focus of leishmaniasis. The entomological survey, performed by sticky and CO(2)-baited traps in 2008, showed the presence of the vector Phlebotomus perfiliewi. This study allowed us to identify a stable focus of CanL in an area that was not considered eco-compatible with the presence of the vector and infection. Our results confirm the northward spread of CanL towards areas not previously affected by autochthonous foci.
VBORNET comment: 2010-04-12
Bardelli et al. demonstrate the presence of canine leishmaniasis in dog of a kennel in northern Italy, based on serological monitoring and confirmed by direct diagnostic tools (PCR), parasitological and molecular methods. The authors report responsible parasite, Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON1, and vector sand fly species, Phlebotomus perfiliewi. Although the kennel is not a good epidemiological observatory in low endemic areas because of collection of roaming dogs with uncertain geographic origin, the surveillance allowed to identify an active focus of infection due to a zymodeme known as the most common in the Mediterranean Basin and the main VL responsible. The high incidence observed, together with the presence of the vector support the authors’ hypothesis of a stable focus of L. infantum at the kennel.
This study contains three important results in terms of public health:
- The results confirm the northward spread of CanL towards areas not previously affected by autochthonous foci;
- This study may represent an example of the outcome of a leishmaniasis monitoring activity in a public health perspective, starting from a group of confined dogs easy to manage. It could be seen as a model for other areas considered at low risk for implementation of regional surveillance programs;
- Additionally this kind of studies may represent a good trial of the “one medicine”: physicians and veterinarians working together on an important zoonosis in order to manage both human and animal health and wellness.
Distribution of Leishmania major zymodemes in relation to populations of Phlebotomus papatasi sand fliesArchived
7 Jul 2011 - Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the main vector of Leishmania major Yakimoff & Schokhor (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Old World.
First surveys to investigate the presence of canine leishmaniasis and its Phlebotomine vectors in HungaryArchived
7 Jul 2011 - Hungary is regarded as free of leishmaniasis because only a few imported cases have been reported. However, southern Hungary has a sub-Mediterranean climate, and so it was included in the EU FP6 EDEN project, which aimed to map the northern limits of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Europe.
Spatial distribution of phlebotomine sand flies in the Aydin Mountains and surroundings: the main focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in western TurkeyArchived
7 Jul 2011 - An entomological survey was conducted to determine the spatial distribution of phlebotomine fauna and understand the effect of environmental factors.