Influenza vaccine effectiveness

Vaccine effectiveness is an estimate of the likelihood that a vaccine prevents influenza infection when used in everyday practice. To establish how well influenza vaccines work each season, influenza vaccine effectiveness is measured in observational studies.

In EU/EEA, the ECDC founded network I-MOVE (Influenza - Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness) is responsible for measuring the vaccine effectiveness.

The studies provide results for inactivated influenza vaccines overall with no possibility to distinguish between different vaccine products. The results are presented by age group and by different influenza vaccine strain. Since the influenza season 2012/13 results from observational studies assessing LAIV (Live attenuated influenza vaccine) used in children are available.

In general, a vaccine effectiveness of ~30-60% has been estimated for the three different influenza A (H1N1, H3N2) and B strains (Victoria or Yamagata lineages).

In Europe influenza vaccine effectiveness studies were initiated by ECDC and have been followed systematically since the influenza season 2008/2009.

Table: Overview of articles on effectiveness of inactivated seasonal influenza vaccines estimated in multi-center studies conducted by the I-MOVE network in Europe

Season  Author  Article
Season 2016-17 Kissling et al Early 2016/17 vaccine effectiveness estimates against influenza A(H3N2): I-MOVE multicentre case control studies at primary care and hospital levels in Europe.
Season 2015-16 Kissling et al 2015/16 I-MOVE/I-MOVE+ multicentre case control study in Europe: moderate vaccine effectiveness estimates against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and low estimates against lineage mismatched influenza B among children
Season 2014-2015 Valenciano et al Vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care patients in a season of co-circulation of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, B and drifted A(H3N2), I-MOVE Multicentre Case-Control Study, Europe 2014/15.
Season 2013-2014 Valenciano et al The European I-MOVE Multicentre 2013-2014 Case-Control Study.  Homogeneous moderate influenza vaccine effectiveness against A(H1N1)pdm09 and heterogeneous results by country against A(H3N2).
Season 2012-2013 Kissling et al Influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates in Europe in a season with three influenza type/subtypes circulating: the I-MOVE multicenter case-control study, influenza  season 2012/13
Season 2011-2012 Kissling et al

Low and decreasing vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H3) in 2011/12 among vaccination target groups in Europe: results from the I-MOVE multicentre case–control study

Season 2010-2011 Kissling et al Overall and stratified estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness in Europe for the season 2010-2011
Season 2009-2010 Valenciano M et al Estimates of Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in       Europe, 2009-2010: Results of Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE)     Multicenter Case-Control Study.
Season 2008-2009 Kissling et al I-MOVE” towards monitoring seasonal and pandemic influenza accine effectiveness: lessons learnt from a pilot multi-centric case-control study in Europe 2008-9  

 

The live attenuated influenza vaccines used in paediatric programmes in Finland, Germany and United Kingdom have also been evaluated:

ECDC Study protocols for influenza vaccine effectiveness studies

Publication

Protocols for case-control studies to measure influenza vaccine effectiveness in the EU and EEA Member States

technical guidance, protocol -

Publication

Protocols for cohort database studies to measure influenza vaccine effectiveness in the EU and EEA Member States

protocol, technical guidance -

Publication

Protocol for cluster investigations to measure influenza vaccine effectiveness in the EU/EEA

protocol, technical guidance -

See all updates on vaccine defectiveness

Event

Flu Awareness Week, 22 – 26 October 2018

22 Oct 2018 - 26 Oct 2018

News

Low uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination in Europe may jeopardise capacity to protect people in next pandemic

press release -

Publication

Seasonal influenza vaccination in Europe – Vaccination recommendations and coverage rates for eight influenza seasons (2007–2008 to 2014–2015)

technical report -

Publication

Seasonal influenza vaccination in Europe – Vaccination recommendations and coverage rates for 2013-14 and 2014-15

technical report -

Publication

Seasonal influenza vaccination in Europe – Vaccination recommendations and coverage rates for 2012–13

technical report -